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Biodiversity and Environmental Philosophy: An Introduction - Sahotra Sarkar - Google книги
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Our Day return guarantee still applies. Advanced Book Search Browse by Subject. Find Antiquarian Books Book Value. Sign up to receive offers and updates: Subscribe. Proponents of intrinsic value — both subjective and objective — believe that it is crucial to the justification for, and practice of, conservation biology. Policies and practices aim to accomplish goals. These goals need to be justified, particularly when there are costs involved in pursuing them and alternatives to them.
This applies to the goals of conservation biology and ecosystem management. There are costs associated with preserving species and effectively managing ecological systems, and there are alternative uses for managed spaces and management funds. Goals are justified by appeal to values. If restricting certain activities in an area or allocating resources to preserve species is justified, the justification must make appeal to the value of the species or the ecosystem. Sometimes, the justifying value is instrumental, as is the case with fisheries natural resource value , watersheds ecosystem services and ecotourism economic value.
In these situations, preservation, conservation, and assisted recovery goals are justified only if the organisms, species, or systems involved possess non-instrumental i. Moreover, instrumental value is substitutable, replaceable, and compensatable. If something is instrumentally valuable as a means to an end, it is possible to compare it to other potential means to the same end. If a means is lost, but some other equally adequate means exists, then there is no net value loss. Therefore, if non-human organisms, species, and ecosystems possess only instrumental value, their value-and by extension the conservation and management goals they justify-are highly contingent, defeasible, and unstable.
They can and should be treated as comparable to, and substitutable by, other instrumental values. In contrast, intrinsic value is not substitutable or replaceable Callicott If non-human organisms, species, or ecosystems have subjective or objective intrinsic value, their value is not dependent upon whether alternative means come available e. For this reason, proponents of intrinsic value argue that it is more stable and robust than is instrumental value with respect to justifying conservation goals.
They also believe intrinsic value is relevant to developing particular conservation and management plans, strategies, and methods, since these need to reflect the values at stake. For example, natural-historical value, because it is contrary to human impacts and control, typically favors less intensive design and management — and if individual animals have inherent worth, ecosystem management practices e.
Not all environmental ethicists agree that intrinsic value is crucial to justifying conservation goals and developing management plans and methods. Pragmatists typically argue that management goals and plans are justified procedurally i. Some environmental pragmatists advocate retaining the language of intrinsic value, because it can be useful in discourse or procedural contexts Minteer However, the pragmatic conception of intrinsic value does not have the normative features i. Baxter, W. Cahen, H.
Against the moral considerability of ecosystems. Environmental Ethics 10 , Callicott, B. Scott, D. Earth Charter International. The Earth Charter. Elliot, R. Intrinsic value, environmental obligation, and naturalness.
The Monist 75, Johnson, L. A Morally Deep World. Katz, E.
The call of the wild. Environmental Ethics 14 , Maclaurin, J. What is Biodiversity? Minteer, B. Intrinsic value for pragmatists. Environmental Ethics 23 , Naess, A. Ecology, Community, and Lifestyle: Outline of an Ecosophy. Norton, B. Why I am not a nonanthropocentrist. Environmental Ethics 17 , O'Neill, J. London, UK: Routledge, Pinchot, G. The Training of a Forester. Philadelphia and London: J. Lippincott Company, Rolston, H. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, Sandler, R. Character and Environment. A Virtue-oriented Approach to Environmental Ethics.
Sarkar, S. Biodiversity and Environmental Philosophy: An Introduction. Singer, P. Animal Liberation. London, UK: Paladin, What is conservation biology? Bioscience 35 , Sterba, J. Taylor, P. Thompson, P. United Nations. Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. Convention on Biological Diversity.
Weston, A. Beyond intrinsic value: Pragmatism in environmental ethics. Environmental Ethics 7 , Conservation Biology: Ethical Foundations. Ecology: An Ethical Perspective. Environmental Ethics. Sustainability: Ethical Foundations. Advocacy, Ecology, and Environmental Ethics. Conceptualizing and Evaluating Non-Native Species. Geoengineering and Environmental Ethics. Intrinsic Value, Ecology, and Conservation. Ethics and Global Climate Change.