Punam Pandey Scheming through this book offers one the chance to engage in an intricate process of understanding the thin line between domestic and international politics through the lens of South Asia. We pick up the story from when Colonial India, in a space of less than 25 years became India and a break away Pakistan at independence in , and later a Pakistan with a break away Bangladesh in In her book, Dr.
- India-Bangladesh River Water Sharing: Politics over Cooperation;
- An Introduction to the Theory of Real Functions.
- Pollution of the Ganges - Wikipedia.
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Pandey explores an issue with very futuristic implications; that of water politics at a time when climate change is proving that water supplies will become more pertinent aspects of contention in the not so distant future. Following Mujib's assassination, Zia's administration was mindful of India's violation of the ten-day agreement and was considerably less India-friendly when it came to protecting scarce water resources during the dry season. In security matters, too, "Zia moved away from India and came closer to China" due in part to feelings over the liberation war Mohsin, This alliance with China marked the beginning of a complex post-independence military dynamic between India and Bangladesh.
Economically, Pakistan and Bangladesh maintained trade ties since President Zia's visit to Pakistan in Jacques, Militarily, Pakistan, has provided support to Bangladesh over the past decades, and supported Bangladesh on the Farakka issue, through which Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto "was able to cultivate Pakistan's increasingly important Islamic ties, and at the same time, gain wider support in keeping Indian regional ambitions in check" Jacques, At the same time, the Bangladesh military establishment has resisted forging security ties with India.
In some cases, political leaders at the highest level have voiced objections to such things as defense purchases from India, even when they were the most obvious potential supplier Mohsin, This was the case in , when Khaleda Zia "raised strong objections to the proposed defense purchases of Indian trucks and Russian MiGs - questioning the very wisdom of making defense deals with India and questioning the quality of the vehicles also.
The opposition has further alleged that the government aims to turn the Bangladeshi armed forces into a wing of the Indian army. Such allegations can have profound implications, for the Bangladesh military has a strong anti-India bias" Mohsin, With a military over ten times the size and with thirty times the defense budget of Bangladesh's, as well as nuclear capabilities Burns, , India's military superiority is hard to dispute, and has played a key role in enabling India to prevail on the Farakka issue Jacques, However, given India's regional security concerns - epitomized in the recent attacks on Mumbai that were at least in part orchestrated by Pakistani militants Perlez, - there may be an opportunity for Bangladesh to bring its own political-military power to bear on water issues with India.
India's relations with Bangladesh have been most cordial during periods of simultaneous easing of India's "tension-ridden" relationship with Pakistan and China Jacques, Conversely, during times of heightened tension between Pakistan and India, Bangladesh may be in a stronger position to seek concessions from India on the Farakka dispute. The mighty Ganges River and its distributaries have given rise to one of the most densely populated and culturally vibrant regions on earth.
Due to the pressures of population growth and economic development, India constructed and began to operate the Farakka Barrage in northeast India.
The barrage has indeed spurred the economic growth of West Bengal state of India, but as a result of the water diversion project, downstream users of the Ganges in Bangladesh are suffering from water shortages that are predicted to only worsen in spite of the water-sharing treaty that has been in place since Burns, John F. Chowdhury, M. Ward, Seasonal flooding in Bangladesh - variability and predictability.
The River Ganges Water Issues
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Sarkar, S. Khan, M. Khurram, Hussain, M. Jacques, Kathryn. Macmillan Press, Mirza, M.
India-Bangladesh River Water Sharing: Politics over Cooperation
Warrick, N. Kenny, Are peak flows getting worse in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna basins? Environmental Hazards, 3 Mohsin, Amena. Edited by Muthiah Alagappa. Rahman, M. Hassan, M. Shamsad, Environmental impact assessment on water quality deterioration caused by the decreased Ganges outflow and saline water intrusion in south-western Bangladesh. Environmental Geology, 40 Sanyal, Santanu, "Kolkata port: Government support vital. November 19, Sengupta, Somini. Tanzeema, S. Faisal, Sharing the Ganges: a critical analysis of the water sharing treaties, Water Policy 3 A spokesperson from her department told the Guardian that the government is still waiting for clearance from the environment ministry.
For years, parts of India have suffered from devastating spells of drought. As average temperatures in India rise , and the growing population puts increasing demands on water resources, millions of people are without a reliable water supply.
India Bangladesh Domestic Politics - The River Ganges Water Issues | Punam Pandey | Springer
This year, million Indians have been affected by drought. State governments used emergency measures to deliver water by train in the western state of Maharashtra; in other areas, schools and hospitals were forced to close, and hundreds of families were forced to migrate from villages to nearby cities where water is more easily accessible. Now, with a supreme court mandate , and government backing, save the rubber stamp of the environment ministry, the project could get under way in a matter of days.
Scientists say the government needs to do a full audit of its existing water resources and analyse the environmental impact of linking rivers before pressing on with its plans. They need to look at a river not just as a source of water, but as an entire ecosystem.